Lemon battery science project instructions Toronto

lemon battery science project instructions

Lemon Battery KiwiCo This is a sponsored conversation written by me on behalf of Green Works. The opinions and text are all mine. Spark your child’s creativity with this lemon battery science experiment. Girls and boys alike can flourish when provided with STEM projects through the StemBox subscription, powered by Green Works. After growing up in a decade […]

Lemon Battery STEM Project Coffee Cups and Crayons

How to Build a Simple Lemon Battery Sciencing. This is a sponsored conversation written by me on behalf of Green Works. The opinions and text are all mine. Spark your child’s creativity with this lemon battery science experiment. Girls and boys alike can flourish when provided with STEM projects through the StemBox subscription, powered by Green Works. After growing up in a decade […], 14/10/2019 · A lemon battery is a classic science experiment used to demonstrate the basics of a chemical battery system. To conduct this experiment, a scientist needs one very juicy lemon, a galvanized or zinc-coated steel nail, and a clean copper coin or section of household copper wiring. The scientist making the battery also needs a wire with alligator clips at each end and a sensitive voltmeter..

14/10/2019 · A lemon battery is a classic science experiment used to demonstrate the basics of a chemical battery system. To conduct this experiment, a scientist needs one very juicy lemon, a galvanized or zinc-coated steel nail, and a clean copper coin or section of household copper wiring. The scientist making the battery also needs a wire with alligator clips at each end and a sensitive voltmeter. Use in school projects. There are numerous sets of instructions for making lemon batteries and for obtaining components such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), electrical meters (multimeters), and zinc-coated nails and screws. Commercial "potato clock" science kits include electrodes and a …

We have tried to give clear written instructions for each project, along with pictures and videos to make sure kids can first understand what they are doing and why before they execute the projects. Some of them may require adult supervision too. So, have fun learning science hands on! 09/10/2019В В· NOTE:Read the instructions carefully before building the project to avoid damage to the electronic watch or to prevent the LED from working. Build a Clock Powered by fruit battery, you need to read the instructions carefully and prepare the same fruit or solution, for example: apples, oranges, potatoes, lemons, tomatoes, cola, pears, pineapples, or salt solutions, etc.

Your battery can generate electricity, but will only do so when the electrodes are connected with something that conducts electricity. To create a connection, attach the second aluminum strip to the part of the penny sticking out of the lemon with a plastic-coated paperclip. Project #6: Turn On a Light with Lemon Power You can make a battery out of many different things; for example, in “What’s Inside a Battery?” on page 55, I showed you how a lemon battery might work. In this project, you’ll learn how to build a lemon battery of your own and power a light with it. WARNING When you’re finished with this

The lemon battery hypothesis states that a lemon is acidic enough to carry an electric charge and act as a battery. To demonstrate that a lemon can carry an electric charge, it is necessary to perform an experiment. To test the lemon battery hypothesis, students … 14/10/2019 · A lemon battery is a classic science experiment used to demonstrate the basics of a chemical battery system. To conduct this experiment, a scientist needs one very juicy lemon, a galvanized or zinc-coated steel nail, and a clean copper coin or section of household copper wiring. The scientist making the battery also needs a wire with alligator clips at each end and a sensitive voltmeter.

Procedures on How to Make a Lemon Battery ••• lemon image by Henryk Olszewski from Fotolia.com. Share . Tweet . Email . Print . Related. Science Project on Electricity in a Potato. Updated April 24, 2017. By Susan Deily-Swearingen . Electricity and the various forms in which it is ever present is something that seems to capture the imagination of young and old alike. Experiments that Step by step instructions with illustrations and an explanation of the science behind the lemon battery were included in the Stem Box. We started by rolling the lemons on the table to get them nice and juicy. Then my daughter stuck a zinc nail and a piece of copper wire into each of the 4 lemons.

10/07/2018В В· We love building circuits around here. From our very first Circuit Bugs creation to Potato Batteries, we have had a lot of fun over the years experimenting with low voltage experiments and electricity in our elementary science lessons.With summer here, that means lemons and lemonade. It also means it was time for us to create the famous lemon battery science experiment. For this science fair project, kids will learn how to make a lemon battery. They can conduct this classic experiment using readily available materials.

A Lemon Battery Science Experiment conducted by a 5th grader: A Lemon Battery Science Experiment creates an electrical current flow through the juice of the lemons and lights an LED bulb. How to Make a Lemon Battery: In this instructable you will learn how to create a lemon battery. The lemons create about 4 and a half volts, enough to run something that uses low voltage. The lemons produce this voltage through the process of electrolysis which is the chemical...

Making a lemon battery is one of the classic science projects for kids. It is inexpensive, easy to set up and fairly easy to perform. If you take a quick peek at the supplies photo below, you’ll see we need a voltmeter. Don’t let that scare you. A fruit battery doesn’t generate enough power to actually light a bulb, so a meter is needed The LED bulb has got a negative and a positive wire that must be connected to your lemon battery’s negative (nail) and positive (copper wire) terminals. Battery Facts: Batteries are also called electrical cells. In fact, the things that we call batteries today are really electrical cells. A “battery” is really a group of two or more

Making a lemon battery is one of the classic science projects for kids. It is inexpensive, easy to set up and fairly easy to perform. Can you light a bulb using a battery made by a lemon? This is a sponsored conversation written by me on behalf of Green Works. The opinions and text are all mine. Spark your child’s creativity with this lemon battery science experiment. Girls and boys alike can flourish when provided with STEM projects through the StemBox subscription, powered by Green Works. After growing up in a decade […]

How to Make a Lemon-Powered Light Bulb Our Pastimes

lemon battery science project instructions

Fruit Batteries Science Fair Project Guidebook. Step by step instructions with illustrations and an explanation of the science behind the lemon battery were included in the Stem Box. We started by rolling the lemons on the table to get them nice and juicy. Then my daughter stuck a zinc nail and a piece of copper wire into each of the 4 lemons., 21/03/2012В В· But did you know that you can actually use chemical energy stored within a lemon to power a small LED light? It's true, and we'll show you exactly how in the Fruit-Power Battery experiment..

Lemon Battery Experiment Electricity Science Project. How to Make a Lemon Battery. Learn how to make a lemon battery with this great video. Use a copper penny, a galvanized nail coated in zinc, some wires and the citric acid from inside a lemon to create your very own battery capable of lighting a LED., Procedures on How to Make a Lemon Battery ••• lemon image by Henryk Olszewski from Fotolia.com. Share . Tweet . Email . Print . Related. Science Project on Electricity in a Potato. Updated April 24, 2017. By Susan Deily-Swearingen . Electricity and the various forms in which it is ever present is something that seems to capture the imagination of young and old alike. Experiments that.

How to Make a Simple Lemon Battery 4 Steps - Instructables

lemon battery science project instructions

Fruit Batteries Science Fair Project Guidebook. For this science fair project, kids will learn how to make a lemon battery. They can conduct this classic experiment using readily available materials. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3ALemon_battery Creating a battery from a lemon is a common project in many science text books. Successfully creating one of these devices is not easy. Batteries consist of two different metals suspended in an acidic solution. Copper and Zinc work well as the metals and the citric acid content of a lemon ….

lemon battery science project instructions


Step 4: Is one lemon enough to power a clock that runs on a AAA battery (1.5 volts)? One lemon produces 7/10 of a volt. Ask students to predict how many lemons they'll need (at least two). Roll each lemon vigorously and create positive (copper) and negative (zinc) terminals in the additional lemons. 20/07/2019В В· Instructions. Roll and squeeze the lemons a little bit by hand to release the juice inside. In each lemon, insert 1 nail and 1 small strip of copper wire. Leave a small section in each one out for the electrical wires to connect. Using an electrical wire, connect the nail in one lemon to the copper strip in another lemon. Do this to each lemon

Making a lemon battery is one of the classic science projects for kids. It is inexpensive, easy to set up and fairly easy to perform. Can you light a bulb using a battery made by a lemon? This lemon battery is a great one to start with if you have kids expressing an interest in STEM projects. STEM, if you are not familiar stands for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. We received a free STEM themed box teaching us how to create this project, but it is easy to recreate on your own!

A Lemon Battery Science Experiment conducted by a 5th grader: A Lemon Battery Science Experiment creates an electrical current flow through the juice of the lemons and lights an LED bulb. 10/07/2018В В· We love building circuits around here. From our very first Circuit Bugs creation to Potato Batteries, we have had a lot of fun over the years experimenting with low voltage experiments and electricity in our elementary science lessons.With summer here, that means lemons and lemonade. It also means it was time for us to create the famous lemon battery science experiment.

Creating a battery from a lemon is a common project in many science text books. Successfully creating one of these devices is not easy. Batteries consist of two different metals suspended in an acidic solution. Copper and Zinc work well as the metals and the citric acid content of a lemon … Step by step instructions with illustrations and an explanation of the science behind the lemon battery were included in the Stem Box. We started by rolling the lemons on the table to get them nice and juicy. Then my daughter stuck a zinc nail and a piece of copper wire into each of the 4 lemons.

For this science fair project, kids will learn how to make a lemon battery. They can conduct this classic experiment using readily available materials. The LED bulb has got a negative and a positive wire that must be connected to your lemon battery’s negative (nail) and positive (copper wire) terminals. Battery Facts: Batteries are also called electrical cells. In fact, the things that we call batteries today are really electrical cells. A “battery” is really a group of two or more

Making a lemon battery is one of the classic science projects for kids. It is inexpensive, easy to set up and fairly easy to perform. If you take a quick peek at the supplies photo below, you’ll see we need a voltmeter. Don’t let that scare you. A fruit battery doesn’t generate enough power to actually light a bulb, so a meter is needed Today, they will make a battery out of a lemon, and so I have asked them to read the The Lemon Battery Lab procedure and be ready to put the procedure into their own words. This work focuses on the CCSS Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6–12 by giving students the opportunity to "3. Follow precisely a complex

14/10/2019В В· A lemon battery is a classic science experiment used to demonstrate the basics of a chemical battery system. To conduct this experiment, a scientist needs one very juicy lemon, a galvanized or zinc-coated steel nail, and a clean copper coin or section of household copper wiring. The scientist making the battery also needs a wire with alligator clips at each end and a sensitive voltmeter. Your battery can generate electricity, but will only do so when the electrodes are connected with something that conducts electricity. To create a connection, attach the second aluminum strip to the part of the penny sticking out of the lemon with a plastic-coated paperclip.

Instructions. Step 1: Soften the lemon Roll a lemon around on a table to soften up the inside without breaking the skin. If it's too firm, it could reduce the battery's charge. Step 2: Put the copper in Use the knife to cut a slit in one lemon and insert the wire so a bit of it sticks out. This is your battery's positive terminal. TIP: If you have a U.S. penny minted before 1982, or a Canadian Use in school projects. There are numerous sets of instructions for making lemon batteries and for obtaining components such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), electrical meters (multimeters), and zinc-coated nails and screws. Commercial "potato clock" science kits include electrodes and a …

A Lemon Battery Science Experiment conducted by a 5th grader: A Lemon Battery Science Experiment creates an electrical current flow through the juice of the lemons and lights an LED bulb. Watch how the lemons make enough electricity to turn the clock on. If you’ve hooked everything up and the clock isn’t running, try switching the wires. Here’s how this lemon battery works. There’s a chemical reaction between the steel in the paper clip and the lemon juice. There’s also a chemical reaction between the copper in the

STEM Fun Make a Lemon-Powered Clock in 6 Steps Scholastic

lemon battery science project instructions

How to Make a Lemon Battery Kids science fair projects. Instructions. Step 1: Soften the lemon Roll a lemon around on a table to soften up the inside without breaking the skin. If it's too firm, it could reduce the battery's charge. Step 2: Put the copper in Use the knife to cut a slit in one lemon and insert the wire so a bit of it sticks out. This is your battery's positive terminal. TIP: If you have a U.S. penny minted before 1982, or a Canadian, 25/12/2015В В· DIY : how to generate electricity using lemon at home with the help of copper and zinc plate at home, how to make lemon battery at home Thank you for watching crazy NK !!!!!!!! Category.

MAKE & COLLABORATE TURN ON A LIGHT WITH LEMON POWER

Lemon Battery San Jose CA. 95113 The Tech Interactive. 14/10/2019В В· A lemon battery is a classic science experiment used to demonstrate the basics of a chemical battery system. To conduct this experiment, a scientist needs one very juicy lemon, a galvanized or zinc-coated steel nail, and a clean copper coin or section of household copper wiring. The scientist making the battery also needs a wire with alligator clips at each end and a sensitive voltmeter., 07/09/2018В В· How to Make a Lemon Powered Clock. A pair of lemons and a trip to the hardware store is all you need to convert natural chemical energy into electrical power. A common lemon can provide acid to make this work. Try potatoes if you're out of....

14/10/2019В В· A lemon battery is a classic science experiment used to demonstrate the basics of a chemical battery system. To conduct this experiment, a scientist needs one very juicy lemon, a galvanized or zinc-coated steel nail, and a clean copper coin or section of household copper wiring. The scientist making the battery also needs a wire with alligator clips at each end and a sensitive voltmeter. Add more lemon batteries connecting between electrodes with wires to increase the voltage enough to run an LED light, digital watch or basic calculator. Building a lemon battery is a good science experiment for home-schooled kids grades 3-8. Print off a lab sheet or experiment guide online such as one from the National Engineers Week Foundation.

09/10/2019В В· NOTE:Read the instructions carefully before building the project to avoid damage to the electronic watch or to prevent the LED from working. Build a Clock Powered by fruit battery, you need to read the instructions carefully and prepare the same fruit or solution, for example: apples, oranges, potatoes, lemons, tomatoes, cola, pears, pineapples, or salt solutions, etc. For this science fair project, kids will learn how to make a lemon battery. They can conduct this classic experiment using readily available materials.

These project information pages are designed to support science and technology workshops given by the Hila Research Center at Hila Science Camp, Turnbull School and schools of the Renfrew County C.D.S.B. While reasonable care has been taken with respect to the accuracy of the information contained here, we assume no responsibility for errors 14/01/2020 · How to Create a Battery from a Lemon. Batteries are an essential part of everyday life. They allow you to carry electronic devices on the go without having to plug them into a wall outlet. A battery is able to generate electricity …

A lemon battery My experiment is basically making a lemon battery and seeing if it can power a light. A battery consists of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electricity. Each contains a positive side ( Cathode) and a negative side (Anode). Electrolytes ( Acidic lemon juice) allows ions to move between the Lemons are a great way to experiment with a produce-powered battery, but they are not the only fruit or vegetable you can hook up to generate electricity. With the Veggie Power science kit (and Potato Batteries Science Buddies Project Idea), students can experiment with …

09/10/2019В В· NOTE:Read the instructions carefully before building the project to avoid damage to the electronic watch or to prevent the LED from working. Build a Clock Powered by fruit battery, you need to read the instructions carefully and prepare the same fruit or solution, for example: apples, oranges, potatoes, lemons, tomatoes, cola, pears, pineapples, or salt solutions, etc. How to Make a Lemon Battery: In this instructable you will learn how to create a lemon battery. The lemons create about 4 and a half volts, enough to run something that uses low voltage. The lemons produce this voltage through the process of electrolysis which is the chemical...

How to make a lemon battery is today's fruit battery tutorial. Check out these step by step instructions for making a lemon battery. Cool science for kids! The lemon battery hypothesis states that a lemon is acidic enough to carry an electric charge and act as a battery. To demonstrate that a lemon can carry an electric charge, it is necessary to perform an experiment. To test the lemon battery hypothesis, students …

A Lemon Battery Science Experiment conducted by a 5th grader: A Lemon Battery Science Experiment creates an electrical current flow through the juice of the lemons and lights an LED bulb. Step by step instructions with illustrations and an explanation of the science behind the lemon battery were included in the Stem Box. We started by rolling the lemons on the table to get them nice and juicy. Then my daughter stuck a zinc nail and a piece of copper wire into each of the 4 lemons.

Step 4: Is one lemon enough to power a clock that runs on a AAA battery (1.5 volts)? One lemon produces 7/10 of a volt. Ask students to predict how many lemons they'll need (at least two). Roll each lemon vigorously and create positive (copper) and negative (zinc) terminals in the additional lemons. Lemon Battery San Jose CA. 95113 Lab Related Activity: Simplicity of Electricity 201 S. Market St. 1-408-294-8324 thetech.org This activity is meant to extend your students’ knowledge of the topics covered in our Simplicity of Electricity lab.

The LED bulb has got a negative and a positive wire that must be connected to your lemon battery’s negative (nail) and positive (copper wire) terminals. Battery Facts: Batteries are also called electrical cells. In fact, the things that we call batteries today are really electrical cells. A “battery” is really a group of two or more Procedures on How to Make a Lemon Battery ••• lemon image by Henryk Olszewski from Fotolia.com. Share . Tweet . Email . Print . Related. Science Project on Electricity in a Potato. Updated April 24, 2017. By Susan Deily-Swearingen . Electricity and the various forms in which it is ever present is something that seems to capture the imagination of young and old alike. Experiments that

25/12/2015В В· DIY : how to generate electricity using lemon at home with the help of copper and zinc plate at home, how to make lemon battery at home Thank you for watching crazy NK !!!!!!!! Category For this science fair project, kids will learn how to make a lemon battery. They can conduct this classic experiment using readily available materials.

How to Make a Fruit Battery thoughtco.com. Creating a battery from a lemon is a common project in many science text books. Successfully creating one of these devices is not easy. Batteries consist of two different metals suspended in an acidic solution. Copper and Zinc work well as the metals and the citric acid content of a lemon …, Today, they will make a battery out of a lemon, and so I have asked them to read the The Lemon Battery Lab procedure and be ready to put the procedure into their own words. This work focuses on the CCSS Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6–12 by giving students the opportunity to "3. Follow precisely a complex.

Lemon Battery Experiment Teach Beside Me

lemon battery science project instructions

How to Make a Lemon Battery Battery KidsBattery Kids. The LED bulb has got a negative and a positive wire that must be connected to your lemon battery’s negative (nail) and positive (copper wire) terminals. Battery Facts: Batteries are also called electrical cells. In fact, the things that we call batteries today are really electrical cells. A “battery” is really a group of two or more, This lemon battery is a great one to start with if you have kids expressing an interest in STEM projects. STEM, if you are not familiar stands for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. We received a free STEM themed box teaching us how to create this project, but it is easy to recreate on your own!.

Problem/Question Hypothesis Procedure

lemon battery science project instructions

How to Build a Simple Lemon Battery Sciencing. 07/09/2018 · How to Make a Lemon Powered Clock. A pair of lemons and a trip to the hardware store is all you need to convert natural chemical energy into electrical power. A common lemon can provide acid to make this work. Try potatoes if you're out of... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3ALemon_battery science fair project and enjoy the process?” We’re going to walk step-by-step through every aspect of creating a science fair project from start to finish, and we’ll have fun doing it. All you need to do is follow these instructions, watch the video, and do the steps we’ve outlined here. We’ve taken care of the tricky parts and handed.

lemon battery science project instructions


09/10/2019 · NOTE:Read the instructions carefully before building the project to avoid damage to the electronic watch or to prevent the LED from working. Build a Clock Powered by fruit battery, you need to read the instructions carefully and prepare the same fruit or solution, for example: apples, oranges, potatoes, lemons, tomatoes, cola, pears, pineapples, or salt solutions, etc. The LED bulb has got a negative and a positive wire that must be connected to your lemon battery’s negative (nail) and positive (copper wire) terminals. Battery Facts: Batteries are also called electrical cells. In fact, the things that we call batteries today are really electrical cells. A “battery” is really a group of two or more

20/07/2019В В· Instructions. Roll and squeeze the lemons a little bit by hand to release the juice inside. In each lemon, insert 1 nail and 1 small strip of copper wire. Leave a small section in each one out for the electrical wires to connect. Using an electrical wire, connect the nail in one lemon to the copper strip in another lemon. Do this to each lemon In Part 1 of our "Back-to-School Beginner Science Experiments about Electricity" series, we detail a science fair classic - the lemon battery! You and your kids will utilize similar materials and techniques used by pioneers of electric energy when they began their experiments over a century ago.

14/10/2019В В· A lemon battery is a classic science experiment used to demonstrate the basics of a chemical battery system. To conduct this experiment, a scientist needs one very juicy lemon, a galvanized or zinc-coated steel nail, and a clean copper coin or section of household copper wiring. The scientist making the battery also needs a wire with alligator clips at each end and a sensitive voltmeter. The potato battery is a classic but did you know that you can also make a battery out of a penny and lemon? In fact, there are a bunch of household items that can be made into batteries! In this project, we test a penny and lemon to see how many volts it can produce!

14/10/2019В В· A lemon battery is a classic science experiment used to demonstrate the basics of a chemical battery system. To conduct this experiment, a scientist needs one very juicy lemon, a galvanized or zinc-coated steel nail, and a clean copper coin or section of household copper wiring. The scientist making the battery also needs a wire with alligator clips at each end and a sensitive voltmeter. For this science fair project, kids will learn how to make a lemon battery. They can conduct this classic experiment using readily available materials.

Step 4: Is one lemon enough to power a clock that runs on a AAA battery (1.5 volts)? One lemon produces 7/10 of a volt. Ask students to predict how many lemons they'll need (at least two). Roll each lemon vigorously and create positive (copper) and negative (zinc) terminals in the additional lemons. How to Make a Lemon Battery: In this instructable you will learn how to create a lemon battery. The lemons create about 4 and a half volts, enough to run something that uses low voltage. The lemons produce this voltage through the process of electrolysis which is the chemical...

Instructions. Step 1: Soften the lemon Roll a lemon around on a table to soften up the inside without breaking the skin. If it's too firm, it could reduce the battery's charge. Step 2: Put the copper in Use the knife to cut a slit in one lemon and insert the wire so a bit of it sticks out. This is your battery's positive terminal. TIP: If you have a U.S. penny minted before 1982, or a Canadian How to Make a Lemon Battery: In this instructable you will learn how to create a lemon battery. The lemons create about 4 and a half volts, enough to run something that uses low voltage. The lemons produce this voltage through the process of electrolysis which is the chemical...

In Part 1 of our "Back-to-School Beginner Science Experiments about Electricity" series, we detail a science fair classic - the lemon battery! You and your kids will utilize similar materials and techniques used by pioneers of electric energy when they began their experiments over a century ago. Procedures on How to Make a Lemon Battery ••• lemon image by Henryk Olszewski from Fotolia.com. Share . Tweet . Email . Print . Related. Science Project on Electricity in a Potato. Updated April 24, 2017. By Susan Deily-Swearingen . Electricity and the various forms in which it is ever present is something that seems to capture the imagination of young and old alike. Experiments that

Your battery can generate electricity, but will only do so when the electrodes are connected with something that conducts electricity. To create a connection, attach the second aluminum strip to the part of the penny sticking out of the lemon with a plastic-coated paperclip. Step by step instructions with illustrations and an explanation of the science behind the lemon battery were included in the Stem Box. We started by rolling the lemons on the table to get them nice and juicy. Then my daughter stuck a zinc nail and a piece of copper wire into each of the 4 lemons.

The lemon battery is a simple type of electrical battery that is commonly made for school science projects because it illustrates a battery's main components. Typically, a piece of zinc metal and a piece of copper metal are inserted into a lemon. Everyday objects such as galvanized nails and copper pennies can be used for the zinc and for the Lemon Battery San Jose CA. 95113 Lab Related Activity: Simplicity of Electricity 201 S. Market St. 1-408-294-8324 thetech.org This activity is meant to extend your students’ knowledge of the topics covered in our Simplicity of Electricity lab.

Creating a battery from a lemon is a common project in many science text books. Successfully creating one of these devices is not easy. Batteries consist of two different metals suspended in an acidic solution. Copper and Zinc work well as the metals and the citric acid content of a lemon … 14/10/2019 · A lemon battery is a classic science experiment used to demonstrate the basics of a chemical battery system. To conduct this experiment, a scientist needs one very juicy lemon, a galvanized or zinc-coated steel nail, and a clean copper coin or section of household copper wiring. The scientist making the battery also needs a wire with alligator clips at each end and a sensitive voltmeter.

Use in school projects. There are numerous sets of instructions for making lemon batteries and for obtaining components such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), electrical meters (multimeters), and zinc-coated nails and screws. Commercial "potato clock" science kits include electrodes and a … These project information pages are designed to support science and technology workshops given by the Hila Research Center at Hila Science Camp, Turnbull School and schools of the Renfrew County C.D.S.B. While reasonable care has been taken with respect to the accuracy of the information contained here, we assume no responsibility for errors